By Alexander Marshak, Anthony Davis
Developments in 3-dimensional cloud radiation during the last few many years are assessed and distilled into this contributed quantity. Chapters are authored through subject-matter specialists who address a large viewers of graduate scholars, researchers, and somebody attracted to cloud-radiation approaches within the sun and infrared spectral regions. After introductory chapters and a piece at the basic physics and computational options, the amount commonly treats major program parts: the effect of clouds at the Earth's radiation price range, that is a necessary point of weather modeling; and distant commentary of clouds, specially with the complicated sensors on present and destiny satellite tv for pc missions.
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Additional info for 3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres (Physics of Earth and Space Environments)
5 Tools for 3D Clouds, 1970s through 1990s I would really prefer to skip the past and just read my crystal ball about future tools. But as in so many endeavors, the past is prologue, and many of the issues we ﬁrst faced in the 1970s still haunt us today. The defects of the past are the spur to tools of the future, and without some understanding of those defects, it is hard to appreciate exactly what problems the new tools are ﬁxing. In the 1970s, we didn’t have any observational tools to characterize 3D clouds in a way that would enable 3D radiation modeling.
Clear sky radiation remains a fascination for some, but to me the challenge was always clouds. Aerosols were a big topic in 1970, due mainly to Reid Bryson and his “human volcano” slogan, but to me it seemed a tempest in a teapot. Clouds are the primary atmospheric modulators of the ﬂow of radiant energy from the Sun back to space. They are more important even than water vapor because they operate at all wavelengths and the Earth is 67% cloud-covered according to the latest ISCCP results. Clouds’ role in energetics was known by the time Arrhenius published his amazing energy-balance climate model calculations for doubled CO2 in 1896, although he assumed a cloud albedo of 78% at all wavelengths and thus assigned them a bizarrely low emissivity of 22% in the infrared.
High quality polarized Dopper-radar spectra may someday enable us to disentangle the return by these objects from the return by cloud drops. J. Wiscombe and cloud-physics dropsondes, all carrying miniaturized cloud physics instrumentation. The last decade of my career has been spent on a deep involvement with ARM and with trying to push new instruments, tools, observing strategies, and platforms, and new ways of doing ﬁeld science. I am very proud of the work of my ARM group – Alexander Marshak, Anthony Davis, Frank Evans, Robert Pincus, and now Yuri Knyazikhin and Christine Chiu – and am privileged to have been able to point such talented people in promising directions and then give them their heads to run like the wind.