# 3-D seismic imaging by Biondi B.L.

By Biondi B.L.

Seismic pictures are the most important to state-of-the-art exploration and reservoir tracking. '3D Seismic Imaging provides primary ideas and state-of-the-art equipment for imaging mirrored image seismic information. The ebook coherently offers the most parts of seismic imaging - data-acquisition geometry, migration, and speed estimation - via exposing the hyperlinks that intertwine them. The publication emphasizes graphical realizing over theoretical improvement. numerous artificial and box info examples illustrate the presentation of mathematical algorithms. the amount encompasses a DVD that encompasses a subset (C3-narrow-azimuth vintage information set) of the SEG-EAGE salt facts set and of the corresponding speed version. The DVD additionally contains a whole set of PDF slides that may be used to educate the cloth awarded within the publication.

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**Extra resources for 3-D seismic imaging**

**Sample text**

Notice that the two surfaces become tangent along the in-line edges at the z ξ = 0 plane. 3. In the more general case, the time-delays used for migration are computed numerically. There are several methods for computing time delays through a complex velocity function. All of them solve the Eikonal equation, a high-frequency approximation of the wave equation (Bleistein, 1984). The large majority of the numerical methods are either ray-tracing methods (UCervený and PUsenUcík, 1983; Sava and Fomel, 2001), which solve the Eikonal equation along its characteristics, or finite-difference methods (Vidale, 1990; Popovici and Sethian, 2002).

The cross at the bottom of the hemisphere identifies the input impulse that is sprayed along the surface. The equivalent depth of the impulse is given by z ξ = V τξ /2. cheops-ellips-zo [NR] 33 34 CHAPTER 2. 5: Constant-offset spreading surface defined in the threedimensional image space. The vertical axis is the depth axis. The contour lines identify ellipses at equal depth. The cross at the bottom of the figure identifies the input impulse that is sprayed along the surface. The equivalent depth of the impulse is given by z ξ = V τξ /2.

The stacked cube has only three dimensions (time and two midpoints), compared with the five dimensions of prestack data. More importantly, the number of data traces is reduced by a factor equivalent to the average data fold. Because the cost of performing NMO+Stack is negligible compared with performing the subsequent zero-offset migration, the whole chain of processes is cheaper than full prestack migration by a factor proportional to the average data fold. In addition to its lower computational cost, poststack imaging is attractive because it is a robust procedure with respect to both uncertainties in the velocity estimates and irregularities in the data sampling.