By Stefano Basagni; et al
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Prof. Dr. -Ing. Bodo Morgenstern lehrt Elektronik und Nachrichtenverarbeitung an der Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg.
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For example, the existence of a large number of routing protocols in MANET areas makes the routing protocol selection a difficult task. Simulation considering the above metrics presents an easier and systematic way to construct the network environment; to collect and analyze the required performance metrics to make fair protocol comparisons in terms of protocol characteristics, functionalities, advantages, drawbacks; and to provide required performance-optimization solutions. Many studies and simulations have been performed to compare and contrast the large number of routing protocols developed for MANETs; see, for example, [56, 175–177].
For example, some protocols rely on setting up an internal structure, hierarchy, or partitions to help improve routing efficiency and achieve scalability. CGSR and HSR use a cluster/cluster-head-based hierarchical architecture, OLSR protocol relies on the selection of multipoint relays, FSR partitions nodes based on scope, the LANMAR method depends on landmark node and hierarchical partitions of the network nodes, CEDAR relies on core nodes to negotiate routes and maintain and disseminate QoS information, and the Zone-Based Hierarchical Link State Routing Protocol (ZRP)  divides the network into nonoverlapping zones based on nodes’ geolocation, with neighboring zone connectivity information propagated by dedicated gateway nodes.
For example, at the physical layer, some authors have proposed and analyzed policies (based on monitoring the transmission error rates), that avoid useless transmissions when the channel noise reduces the probability of a successful transmission [157, 158]. 11) [161–163], or by finding intervals during which the network interface does not need to be listening . For example, while a node transmits a packet, the other nodes within the same interference and carrier sensing range must remain silent.