By Sam Miller
This textbook on atmospheric thermodynamics is for college students of meteorology or atmospheric technological know-how. It additionally serves as a reference textual content for operating execs in meteorology and climate forecasting. it truly is specified since it presents whole, calculus-based derivations of easy physics from first rules, and connects mathematical relationships to real-world, useful climate forecasting functions. labored examples and perform difficulties are incorporated all through.
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02 × 1026 particles. It increases by about 1 percent as the pressure decreases from 1,000 to 100 hPa, and by about 10 percent as the temperature increases from 0 to 25°C. If they’re not sure they’ve computed some quantity correctly, they can ask their professors or teaching assistants to look at it with them, or they can check a solutions manual. Once they graduate, however, they have to start developing creative and independent ways of checking the results of their computations. This is pretty important for professions like weather forecasting: an incorrect calculation, if left uncorrected, could result in property damage, injury to people, or worse.
Thermodynamic Diagrams Sometimes it’s easier to understand thermodynamic processes if you can see a picture. One way you can do this is to plot the progress of a thermodynamic system from one state to another on a diagram, where the axes coincide with the state variables. Generically, these are called thermodynamic diagrams. 8). 9). 16). Figure from Hess (1959), with axes relabeled p, V, T from original e, α, T. 14 for more details. 11 It’s also desirable to define the axes so that as many of the equations appear as straight (or nearly straight) lines as possible, and, so that the intersections of these lines are as close to perpendicular as possible.
The only interactions between molecules occur when they collide with each other. They do not exert any other forces on each other, such as electrical attraction. Chemists refer to several variations of this electrical attraction as Van der Waals4 forces. The angle at which two molecules approach each other prior to a collision is the same as the angle they follow after collision. Most of the laws discussed in this chapter refer specifically to ideal gases. Later in this chapter, there is a brief effort made to describe gases where Van der Waals forces are in effect, but it is not pursued further than that in this book.