Arachidonic Acid in Cell Signaling (Molecular Biology by Daniele Piomelli

By Daniele Piomelli

This ebook is ready the arachidonic acid cascade, its biochemistry, its pharmacology, and its roles in sign transduction. Arachidonic acid may well function an intracellular moment messenger in lots of mobile kinds, in addition to precursor for biologically lively molecules equivalent to the eicosanoids (a relations of oxygenated metabolites which can act as moment messengers or as neighborhood mediators), and anandamide (an endogenous cannabinoid substance). Dysfunctions within the arachidonic acid cascade underlie a couple of critical pathological stipulations, making those biochemical pathways the objective for medicines of medical price.

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Hypothetical regulation of PLA 2 activity by protein tyrosine kinases. 42 Arachidonic Acid in Cell Signaling that an unidentified G protein, which could be activated by the GTP analog, exerted an inhibitory action on the activity of retinal PLA2 when this enzyme was stimulated by light (for contrasting results, see ref. 83). One experiment suggests that transmembrane receptors may also link to inhibition of arachidonate mobilization,78 CHO cells were transfected with a plasmid vector directing expression of the Hrtype histamine receptor, which is known to be positively linked to adenylyl cyclase, via a G s transducing protein.

THE PHOSPHOLIPASE C/ACYLGLYCEROL-LIPASE PATHWAY Activation of the various PLA2 isoforms described in the preceding sections provides a single-step pathway of arachidonate mobilization. In addition to this direct mechanism, arachidonate mobilization may be initiated by the stimulation of PLCs, which 32 Arachidonic Acid in Cell Signaling catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids (mainly phosphoinositides and phosphatidylcholine) at the phosphate ester bond, producing 1,2 diacylglycerol and a phosphorylated polar head compound (Fig.

In vivo release and clearance of rat platelet phospholipase A z• Biochim Biophys Acta 1989; 1005:270-276. 43. Gramzow M, Schroder HC, Fritsche V, Kurelec B, Robitzki A, Zimmermann H, Friese K, Kreuter MH, Muller WEG. Role of phospholipase A2 in the stimulation of sponge cells proliferation by homologous lectin. Cell 1989; 59:939-948. 44. Lambeau G, Ancian P, Barhanin ], Lazdunski M. Cloning and expression of a membrane receptor for secretory phospholipase A2. J Bioi Chern 1994; 269: 1575-1578. Biosynthesis, Storage and Mobilization of Arachidonic Acid 51 45.

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